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Types of Crops and Crop Seasons in India:

In India there are three major crop seasons - :
(i) Kharif,
(ii) Rabi, and
(iii) Zaid,

Kharif crops:
1. The Khariff crops are associated with the monsoon season. They are sown in the months of June and July and are harvested in autumn months i.e. in September and October.
2. Important Khariff crops are rice, jowar, maize, cotton, ragi, bajra, sugarcane and jute.
Rabi crops:
1. The Rabi crops are sown in the period between October and December and harvested in April and May.
2. Important Rabi crops are wheat, peas, pulses, mustard and rapeseed.
Zaid crops:
1. Zaid crops are sown in the summer season.
2. Important Zaid crops are rice, maize, sunflower, vegetables and groundnut.

Agricultural crops can be broadly divided into two categories - :
(i) food crops, and
(ii) non-food crops

Food crops - Food crops consists of cereals and pulses. Among the cereals are included rice, wheat, maize, bajra, jowar, etc. Pulses include gram, masur, arhar, moong, etc.
Non-food crops - Non food crops comprise of cash crops such as sugarcane, tobacco, jute, cotton, etc.
Tea, coffee and rubber are included among the plantation crops.
Fruit, vegetables, coconut, cashew, etc are included among the horticulture crops.

States in India producing largest quantity of these crops are given below:

Bajra - Gujarat, Rajasthan
Barley - Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan
Cardamom - Karnataka, Kerala
Chillies (dry) - Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh
Coffee - Karnataka, Kerala
Coriander - Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh
Cotton - Gujarat, Maharashtra
Ginger (dry) - Kerala, Himachal Pradesh
Gram - Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh
Ground nut - Gujarat, Tamil Nadu
Jowar - Maharashtra, Karnataka
Jute - West Bengal, Bihar
Maize - Uttar Pradesh, Bihar
Millets (small) - Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh
Paddy - West Bengal, Tamil Nadu
Pulses (kharif) - Rajasthan, Maharashtra
Pulses (rabi) - Odisha, Madhya Pradesh
Ragi - Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
Rape seed and Mustard - Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan
Rice - West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh
Sugarcane - Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra
Tea - Assam, West Bengal
Tobacco - Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu
Wheat - Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana

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