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Important points on Buddhism and Gautam Buddha:

1. Gautam Buddha was the founder of Buddhism.
2. Real name of Gautam Buddha was Siddhartha. He was also known as Sakyamuni or Tathagata.
3. Gautam Buddha was born in 563 BC at Lumbini (near Kapilvastu) in Nepal.
4. Gautam Buddha belonged to the Sakya clan of Kshatriya.
5. His father Suddhodana was the king of Kapilvastu.
6. His mother name was Mahamaya. She belong to Kosala dynasty. She died after 7 days of his birth.
7. Gautam Buddha was married to Yasodhara at the age of 16. He had a son named Rahula.
8. Gautam Buddha after seeing the "Four Passing Sights": an old crippled man, a sick man, a dead man, and a holy man with no home, decided to become a holy man and look for the answer to the problem of birth, old age, sickness and death.
9. Gautam Buddha attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya in Magadha (Bihar).
10. Gautam Buddha delivered his first sermon at Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh. His first sermon is called Dharmachakrapravartan or Turning of the Wheel of Law.
11. Gautam Buddha preached most of his sermons at Sravasti.
12. Gautam Buddha attained Mahaparinirvana in 483 B.C. at Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh at the age of 80.
13. Five disciples of Gautam Buddha were Upali, Asvajit, Mogallana, Ananda and Sariputra.

Four Important Buddhist Councils:

First Buddhist Councils - The first Buddhist council was convened in the year 400 B.C. near Rajgriha following the Buddha's Parinirvana (death) under the chairmanship of Mahakassapa. King Ajatashatru sponsored the council. Tripitaka was established. Teachings of Gautam Buddha was divided into two Pitakas - Vinaya Pitaka and Sutta Pitaka.
Second Buddhist Councils - It was held at Vaishali in 383 BC under the patronage of King Kalasoka. It was held to settle dispute on Vinaya Pitaka, the code of discipline. The subgroups were Sthaviravada, Mahasanghikas and Sarvastivada.
Third Buddhist Councils - It was held at Patliputra in 250 BC under the patronage of King Ashoka. It was presided over by the Elder Moggaliputta Tissa. Abhidhamma Pitaka was established
Fourth Buddhist Councils - It was held at Kundalvan, Kashmir in 72 AD under the patronage of King Kanishka. It was presided over by Vasumitra and Ashwaghosha was his deputy. It divided Buddhism into Mahayana and Hinayana sects.

Buddhist Literature:

It is written in Pali language.
Sutta Pitaka - It is the first of the three divisions of the Tripitaka. It contains more than 10,000 suttas (teachings or sermons) attributed to the Buddha.
Vinaya Pitaka - It contains rules of discipline in Buddhist monastries. It is one of the three parts that make up the Tripitaka.
Abhidhamma Pitaka - It is the last of the three pitakas. It contains philosophical principles of the Buddhist religion.

Symbols of 5 great events related to Gautam Buddha's Life:

Birth of Gautam BuddhaLotus and Bull
The Great Renunciation (Mahabhinishkramana)Horse
First sermon delivered by Gautam Buddha (Dharmachakrapravartan)Wheel
Enlightenment (Nirvana )Bodhi Tree
Death (Parinirvana)Stupa

Four Noble Truths:

The world is full of sorrows.
Desire is root cause of sorrow.
If desire is conquered, all sorrows can be removed.
Desire can be removed by following the eight-fold path.

Eight Fold Path:

(1) Right understanding
(2) Right speech
(3) Right mindfulness
(4) Right thought
(5) Right mindfulness
(6) Right action
(7) Right effort and
(8) Right concentration

Three Ratnas:


Objective Questions on Gautam Buddha, Buddhism and Buddhist Councils frequently asked in SSC, CDS, NDA, PSC, Railways and other competitive examinations-

1. Real name of Gautam Buddha was?
(a) Rahul
(b) Vardhaman
(c) Rishabha
(d) Siddhartha

2. Which of the following Pitaka was established in the Third Buddhist Council?
(a) Vinaya Pitaka
(b) Abhidhamma Pitaka
(c) Sutta Pitaka
(d) All of the above

3. Buddhism was spreaded to?
(a) Japan
(b) Srilanka
(c) China
(d) All of the above

4. Buddhism was divided into Mahayana and Hinayana sects in the?
(a) First Buddhist Council
(b) Second Buddhist Council
(c) Third Buddhist Council
(d) Fourth Buddhist Council

5. What is the symbol of birth of Gautam Buddha?
(a) Bodhi Tree
(b) Lotus and Bull
(c) Stupa
(d) Wheel

6. Gautam Buddha attained Mahaparinirvana (died) at?
(a) Lumbini
(b) Bodh Gaya
(c) Kushinagar
(d) Sarnath

7. Fourth Buddhist Council was held at?
(a) Kashmir
(b) Patliputra
(c) Vaishali
(d) Nalandi

8. Gautam delivered his first sermon at?
(a) Lumbini
(b) Kushinagar
(c) Bodh Gaya
(d) Sarnath

9. What is the symbol of enlightenment (Nirvana) attained by Gautam Buddha?
(a) Bodhi Tree
(b) Wheel
(c) Stupa
(d) Horse

10. What is the symbol of first sermon delivered by Gautam Buddha?
(a) Stupa
(b) Lotus and Bull
(c) Wheel
(d) Horse

11. Gautam Buddha attain enlightenment at?
(a) Lumbini
(b) Bodh Gaya
(c) Sarnath
(d) Kushinagar

12. What are the three jewels of Buddhism?
(a) Buddha
(b) Dhamma
(c) Sangha
(d) All of the above

13. In which Buddhist Council Tripitaka was established?
(a) First Buddhist Council
(b) Second Buddhist Council
(c) Third Buddhist Council
(d) Fourth Buddhist Council

14. The sacred book of Buddhism is called?
(a) Tripitakas
(b) Jatakas
(c) Angas
(d) Triratnas

15. Third Buddhist Council took place in the year?
(a) 250 B.C.
(b) 340 B.C.
(c) 354 B.C.
(d) 72 A.D.

16. In which language Buddhist literature are written?
(a) Hindi
(b) Pali
(c) Sanskrit
(d) None of the above

Answers - 1(d), 2(b), 3(d), 4(d), 5(b), 6(c), 7(a), 8(d), 9(a), 10(c), 11(b), 12(d), 13(a), 14(a), 15(a) and 16(b).