What is a Biosphere Reserve?
Biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems promoting solutions to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. They are internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO's Man and Biosphere (MAB) programme and nominated by national governments and remain under sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located. There are over 500 biosphere reserves in over 100 countries.
What are the main functions of Biosphere Reserve?
Each biosphere reserve is intended to fulfil 3 basic functions, which are complementary and mutually reinforcing:
- a conservation function : to contribute to the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variation;
- a development function : to foster economic and human development which is socio-culturally and ecologically sustainable;
- a logistic function : to provide support for research, monitoring, education and information exchange related to local, national and global issues of conservation and development.
|List of Biosphere Reserve||State||Type|
|Achanakamar - Amarkantak||Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh||Maikala Hills|
|Agasthyamalai||Kerala, Tamil Nadu||Western ghats|
|Cold Desert||Himachal Pradesh||Western Himalayas|
|Dihang-Dibang||Arunachal Pradesh||Eastern Himalaya|
|Great Rann of Kutch||Gujarat||Desert|
|Gulf of Mannar||Tamil Nadu||Coasts|
|Great Nicobar||Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Islands|
|Nanda Devi National Park & Biosphere Reserve||Uttarakhand||Western Himalayas|
|Nilgiri||Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka||Western Ghats|
|Panna||Madhya Pradesh||catchment area of the Ken River|
|Sundarbans||West Bengal||Gangetic Delta|
|Seshachalam Hills||Andhra Pradesh||Eastern Ghats|
Out of 18 Biosphere Reserves in India 9 are included in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list. The list is given below-
|List of Biosphere Reserve||State|
|Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve||Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh|
|Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve||Tamil Nadu|
|Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve||Uttarakhand|
|Nicobar Islands||Andaman and Nicobar Islands|
|Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve||TamilNadu, Kerala, Karnataka|
|Nokrek Biosphere Reserve||Meghalaya|
|Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve||Madhya Pradesh|
|Simlipal Biosphere Reserve||Odisha|
|Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve||West Bengal|
Objective Questions on Biosphere Reserves in India frequently asked in SSC, CDS, NDA, PSC, Railways and other competitive examinations-
Answers - 1(b), 2(d), 3(a), 4(b), 5(d), 6(b) 7(a), 8(c), 9(a), 10(d).